Prior to the 1855 Treaty, the Tribes’ economy consisted primarily of intertribal trade, livestock, trade with fur companies, and hunting, fishing, and gathering. 

Today, the economy of the Confederated Tribes consists of agriculture, livestock, timber, recreation, hunting, fishing, and commercial development such as a mini-market/gas station, trailer court, grain elevator, and the Wildhorse Resort (which includes a casino, hotel, RV Park, and 18-hole golf course). In July 1998, the Tribe opened its Tamastslikt Cultural Institute as the centerpiece of the Resort. CTUIR is the owner of Cayuse Technologies, a new business that opened on the Umatilla Reservation in 2006.